Great Pied Hornbill (Schedule I Part 3)

The largest of the nine hornbill species found on the Indian subcontinent, the Great Pied hornbill also has one of the widest ranges, living everywhere from sea level to heights of nearly 5,000 feet. Doing justice to its name, the Great Pied hornbill can have wingspans of nearly five feet, with tails that can measure three feet. It is an incredibly beautiful bird as well, covered in black plumage, with a yellow bill that curves downward. Most distinctively, the hornbill's head is topped with an ivory formation, also known as a casque. The Great Pied hornbill's diet consists mostly of fruit, which it collects inside its beak during feedings. Incredibly, the hornbill has reportedly been able to consume as many as 150 figs within one meal. This is invaluable for Great Pied hornbill pairs, which mate for life. A male hornbill will collect as much food as it can, swallow it, and then return to its mate, and regurgitate the meal into her mouth. It isn't pretty, but it's very effective for a hornbill mother, who is unable to leave her young. The female Great Pied hornbill's inability to leave her young is a story unto itself. She seals herself inside the hollow of a tree using her own feces (males help with the process from the outside), and stays there until her young are born.

Black-necked Crane (Schedule I Part 3)

Black-necked cranes are the fifth rarest and the least known of all the cranes. They were the last species of crane discovered and described by ornithologists, due to the remoteness of their range. While on their wintering areas, black-necked cranes seem quite tolerant of humans, perhaps because of local religious beliefs that protect them across much of their range.
The sighting of this rare bird in Buxa in Northbengal recently has brought a new enthusiasm in the bird lovers and the wild life department.

Goliath Heron (Schedule IV)

The Goliath Heron - with an overall length of between 4 to 5 feet this really is a huge bird! In flight it has a slow and rather ponderous look and, unlike some other herons, its legs are not held horizontallly. The only similar species is the purple heron, which is much smaller. It prefers to feed in or near water taking fish, frogs, lizards and insects. They use a variety of hunting techniques ranging from standing still at the edge of, or in some water waiting to spear a fish, through acts like stirring the water or grass with a foot or flicking the wings, to disturbing or startling prey, to walking rapidly through the environment. Prey flushing actions such as 'Foot Stirring' and 'Wing-flicking' can be used in conjunction with a slow walk or a walk-stop-walk-stop hunting method as well as when standing still.

Bengal Florican (Schedule I Part 3)

Bengal Florican is said to prefer open grassland habitat with adequate interspersion of tall grasses with short grasses. The overall population of this elusive bird in the park is in critical condition. The major threats include-massive habitat destruction, low breeding success, high mortality rate at the early stage of its life due to predation, hunting and seasonal flooding.
The Bengal Florican (Houbaropsis bengalensis bengalensis, Gmelin) was considered extinct from North Bengal . In the late part of the 19th century, it was recorded from Malda and Nadia districts. Stuart Baker collected the last specimen from Nadia district 1884. A single male bird was sighted along Raidak river of Buxa in 1955. In 1986, it was sighted at Pahabad Tea Garden near Bagdogra and again at Kunjanagar and Harindanga of Jaldapara in 1988 and 1991 respectively

Woodpeckers (Schedule IV)

Woodpeckers are well-adapted for a life on tree trunks and limbs. Woodpeckers have stiff tail feathers which act as a brace for moving along vertical tree trunks. Their feet are also adapted for climbing and hanging. All woodpeckers have two toes pointing forward and either one or two toes pointing to the side or slightly backward. Thus, woodpeckers are able to grip a tree trunk surface with opposable toes. Woodpeckers have evolved chisel-like bills coupled with strong neck and head muscles. These adaptations give them the ability to chip away bark and wood to uncover insects for food, as well as to create nesting cavities. The extremely long, barbed tongue (some species are able to extend their tongue two inches beyond the bill tip) enables the bird to spear insects hidden deep in small holes.
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